TESA/TESE are the most common methods for retrieving testicular sperm in the case of azoospermia
Testicular Sperm Aspiration/ Extraction (TESA/TESE) is sperm retrieval procedure intended for azoospermic patients (azoospermia is defined as absence of spermatozoa in ejaculate). TESA/TESE is done under venous anesthesia. During this procedure, an aspirate/ a small portion of tissue is removed from the testicle. The embryologist will then examine this
tissue sample and extract whatever viable sperm cells are present in the sample. These sperm cells can then be used in ICSI to fertilize the egg. TESA/TESE indications include: males with azoospermia, total asthenozoospermia/necrozoospermia (when all spermatozoa in the ejaculate are immotile), with ejaculation problems or with vasectomy in the past (male sterilization).